Install Shibboleth 2.1 Identity Provider, Tomcat and Apache

Debian 5.0 (lenny)

Patrik Schnellmann


2010-08-24 10:42:35 +0200

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
2. Overview
3. Prerequisites
4. Java Installation
5. Tomcat Installation
6. Shibboleth IdP Installation
7. X.509 Certificates
8. User Authentication
9. Tomcat Configuration
10. Apache Configuration
11. Shibboleth IdP Configuration
12. AAI Resource Registry
13. Maintenance

1. Introduction

This guide describes the installation of a Shibboleth Identity Provider (IdP) and its configuration for the SWITCHaai Federation. It covers installation with Tomcat 6.0 and Apache 2.2 on Debian 5.0 (lenny) using authentication handlers provided by the Shibboleth IdP. The ShibWiki provides information about other deployments.


Before going through this guide, please consult the Best Current Practices document about operating an IdP.


Refer to the IdP support pages of the SWITCHaai website for more information.

1.1. Conventions used in this guide

The following typographic conventions are used in this guide:

  • file and directory names are formatted like this.

  • file contents

    are formatted like this.

  • shell commands
    and output

    are formatted like this.

  • configuration items different from the standard IdP configuration

    are formatted like this.

  • specific values for an installation

    are formatted like this. They have to be adapted for each installation.

2. Overview

The Shibboleth Identity Provider (IdP) is a Java web application using SAML2. The IdP has endpoints for user authentication (SSO) and for back-channel attribute requests (Attribute Authority, AA). Communication with these endpoints is usually secured with TLS/SSL, for which X.509 server certificates are used.

The setup in this guide is as follows:

  • Sun Java 6

  • Apache 2 with Tomcat 6.0

  • Shibboleth 2

    • SSO endpoint on port 443, using an X.509 certificate from a well-known CA

    • Attribute Authority endpoint on port 8443, using a self-signed certificate

The example values used in this guide are:

The DNS name of the Home Organization (Identity Provider) server. Names like "aai-logon", "aai-login", "aai" or something similar are used.

The name of the LDAP server where the user attributes are stored.

entityID of the IdP in the federation metadata

3. Prerequisites

As indicated in the title, this guide applies to Debian 5.0 (lenny) and contains some references to Debian specific tools. However, the Shibboleth IdP can be installed on every system which allows to run the Sun Java virtual machine and a web application server like Tomcat or JBoss.

The following packages should be installed on the system prior to the installation:


Recommended Version 0.9.8, Debian Package: openssl. The OpenSSL tools will be used to handle server certificates.


Debian package: ntp-server (or any other package which provides time-synchronization). Servers running Shibboleth should have their system time synchronized in order to avoid clock-skews.

Apache 2.2 with mod_ssl and mod_proxy_ajp

Debian package: apache2. The modules mod_ssl and mod_proxy_ajp are part of the package.


Debian package: curl (optional, as an alternative to wget)

gnupg (GNU Privacy Guard) and gpgv

Debian packages: gnupg and gpgv (recommended, to verify the signature on the installed software)

4. Java Installation

As Java 1.5 is already being phased out by Sun [SunJava], we strongly recommend to install the current version Sun Java 6. The official Java 6 from Sun is available as a package in Debian 5.0 (lenny). However, to have the latest version, some prefer to install Java manually. This section shows the installation of the Debian package and how to install Sun Java 6 without a packaging system.

4.1. Install the Java 6 JDK package

Make sure the non-free repository is included in the apt sources (sources.list file or a file in directory /etc/apt/sources.list.d/).

# /etc/apt/sources.list
deb lenny main contrib non-free

If you install this package, the following dependent packages will also be installed (among others): sun-java6-bin, sun-java6-jre, sun-java6-demo. Java will be installed in /usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun. To avoid conflicts with other Java virtual machines like kaffe or gcj, deinstalling them is highly suggested. You may also include the following lines in /etc/profile:

export JAVA_HOME

Check that the correct Java version is in the path:

java -version
java version "1.6.0_21"

Once Java is installed, the rest of this section can be skipped. Continue with section Tomcat Installation.

4.2. Install Java 6 manually

This section shows the steps to manually install Sun Java JDK 6.

  1. Download Java SE Development Kit (JDK) 6 for Linux from

  2. Install Java 6 in directory /opt while removing the symlink to a previously installed version (if applicable).

    cd /opt
    chmod 750 jdk-6u21-linux-i586.bin
    test -d /opt/java && rm /opt/java
    ln -s /opt/jdk1.6.0_21 /opt/java

  3. Use Debian update-alternatives to include the Java binaries into the system path.

    export JAVA_HOME=/opt/java
    /usr/sbin/update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/java \
      java $JAVA_HOME/bin/java 200
    /usr/sbin/update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/javac \
      javac $JAVA_HOME/bin/javac 200
    /usr/sbin/update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/jar \
      jar $JAVA_HOME/bin/jar 200
    /usr/sbin/update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/keytool \
      keytool $JAVA_HOME/bin/keytool 200

You may also include the following lines at the end of /etc/profile:

export JAVA_HOME

5. Tomcat Installation

Apache Tomcat [ApacheTomcat] 6.0.17 or greater is the required version to use together with Shibboleth Identity Provider 2. As there is no Tomcat 6.0 package in Debian/stable, we give instructions to manually install Tomcat.

For further information about the setup of Tomcat (e.g. running Tomcat with jsvc), please refer to the Apache Tomcat website.


Concerning Apache Tomcat on Debian/stable, the Debian community unfortunately has a bad track record when it comes to security updates. Therefore we strongly suggest to install Tomcat from the archives distributed on the Apache Tomcat website and keeping this installation up-to-date as new versions are released.

5.1. Install Tomcat 6.0 manually

  1. Download the latest Tomcat 6.0.x version from the Apache Tomcat website.

  2. Unpack apache-tomcat-6.0.28.tar.gz in /opt.

    cd /opt
    tar -xzf apache-tomcat-6.0.28.tar.gz

  3. Create symlinks to facilitate access to configuration and log directories of Tomcat:

    ln -s /opt/apache-tomcat-6.0.28 /opt/tomcat
    ln -s /opt/tomcat/conf /etc/tomcat
    ln -s /opt/tomcat/logs /var/log/tomcat

  4. Remove unnecessary files from /opt/tomcat/bin:

    cd /opt/tomcat/bin
    rm *.bat

  5. Remove web applications you don't need from /opt/tomcat/webapps:

    cd /opt/tomcat/webapps
    rm -rf docs examples host-manager manager

  6. Create a directory for endorsed libraries (/opt/tomcat/endorsed):

    cd /opt/tomcat
    mkdir /opt/tomcat/endorsed

  7. Create a symlink to which is used to start tomcat.

    ln -s /opt/tomcat/bin/ /etc/init.d/tomcat

  8. Configure JVM memory options. The values for memory usage depend on the physical memory of the server. Set Xmx to 512MBytes minimum and XX:MaxPermSize to half of the available memory or 512MBytes minimal. In /opt/tomcat/bin/ set the JAVA_OPTS variable:

    # $Id: ... $
    # -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    JAVA_OPTS="-Xmx512M -XX:MaxPermSize=512M"
    # OS specific support.  $var _must_ be set to either true or false.

  9. Update the different rc.d to start automatically Tomcat with the default runlevels

    update-rc.d tomcat defaults

6. Shibboleth IdP Installation

This section describes the installation of the Shibboleth IdP [ShibbolethInternet2] together with a database for persistent identifiers.

6.1. Shibboleth IdP Installation

If you update from a previous 2.x IdP version, please make a backup of your configuration files, i.e. backup the directory /opt/shibboleth-idp/conf.

cd /opt
tar -cvzf shibboleth-idp_conf.tar.gz ./shibboleth-idp/conf

  1. Get Shibboleth IdP 2.1.5 from the Shibboleth website.

    cd /opt
    curl -O
    curl -O

  2. Download the PGP Keys, import them and verify signature on the downloaded file. This step is needed to verify the integrity of the downloaded software (optional, but highly advised).

    curl -O
    gpg --import KEYS
    gpgv --keyring ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg
    gpgv: Signature made [...] using DSA key ID A1EAE3E8
    gpgv: Good signature from [...]
    rm KEYS

  3. Extract the and make the installer script executable. The archive will be extracted into the directory shibboleth-identityprovider-2.1.5:

    cd /opt
    jar -xf
    cd /opt/shibboleth-identityprovider-2.1.5
    chmod u+x

  4. This and the subsequent step are done to modify the ant target selfSignedCert which will allow 3 years self-signed certificates.

    cd /opt
    curl -Ok
    mv ant-extensions-13Apr2008.jar ./shibboleth-identityprovider-2.1.5/src/installer/lib/

  5. Modify the ant task selfSignedCert in the file /opt/shibboleth-identityprovider-2.1.5/src/installer/resources/build.xml as follows:

      <selfSignedCert hostname="${idp.hostname}" years="3"
                      uriSubjectAltNames="${}" />

  6. Endorse XML/Xerces libraries from the Shibboleth IdP package in $CATALINA_HOME/endorsed (with $CATALINA_HOME=/opt/tomcat in case of a manually installed Tomcat).

    cd /opt/shibboleth-identityprovider-2.1.5
    cp ./endorsed/*.jar /opt/tomcat/endorsed/

  7. Run the ant task to install the Shibboleth IdP software.

    chmod 755
    Buildfile: src/installer/resources/build.xml
    Be sure you have read the installation/upgrade instructions on the 
    Shibboleth website before proceeding.
    Where should the Shibboleth Identity Provider software be installed?
    What is the fully qualified hostname of the Shibboleth Identity Prov
    ider server? [default:]
    A keystore is about to be generated for you. Please enter a password
    that will be used to protect it.
    Updating property file: /opt/shibboleth-identityprovider-2.1.5/src/i
    Created dir: /opt/shibboleth-idp
    Created dir: /opt/shibboleth-idp/bin
    Total time: 25 seconds

  8. Set symbolic links for your convenience. Link /etc/shibboleth to the shibboleth-idp configuration directory and /var/log/shibboleth to the shibboleth-idp log directory:

    ln -s /opt/shibboleth-idp/conf /etc/shibboleth
    ln -s /opt/shibboleth-idp/logs /var/log/shibboleth

  9. Set the IDP_HOME environment variable:

    export IDP_HOME=/opt/shibboleth-idp

  10. You may also include the following line into your /etc/profile file:

    export IDP_HOME

  11. Create the directory for the context descriptor, if not already there:

    cd /opt/tomcat
    mkdir -p conf/Catalina/localhost

    Create a context descriptor for the IdP web application in /opt/tomcat/conf/Catalina/localhost/idp.xml:

        swallowOutput="true" />

6.2. MySQL Server Installation and Configuration

This section shows how to install and configure a MySQL [MySQL] database for persistent identifiers locally on the IdP server. A remote MySQL server may also be used, as long as it meets the availability requirements of the IdP server.

6.2.1. Install MySQL server

  1. Install the Debian 5.0 (lenny) package for MySQL server version 5.0:

    apt-get install mysql-server-5.0

    With the defaults, the mysql daemon only listens to localhost on IPv4.

  2. Set password for the root user in MySQL:

    /usr/bin/mysqladmin -u root password 'secret-password' Create users and databases
  1. Create database:

    mysql -u root -p
    mysql> SET NAMES 'utf8';
    CHARSET utf8;
    USE shibboleth;

  2. Create table shibpid for the persistent id:

      localEntity TEXT NOT NULL,
      peerEntity TEXT NOT NULL,
      principalName VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL default '',
      localId VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL,
      persistentId VARCHAR(36) NOT NULL,
      peerProvidedId VARCHAR(255) default NULL,
      creationDate timestamp NOT NULL default CURRENT_TIMESTAMP
      on update CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
      deactivationDate timestamp NULL default NULL,
      KEY persistentId (persistentId),
      KEY persistentId_2 (persistentId, deactivationDate),
      KEY localEntity (localEntity(16), peerEntity(16),localId),
      KEY localEntity_2 (localEntity(16), peerEntity(16),
      localId, deactivationDate)

  3. Show information about the table that has been created in the step before.

    DESCRIBE shibpid;
    | Field            | Type         | Null | Key | Default           | Extra |
    | localEntity      | text         | NO   | MUL |                   |       | 
    | peerEntity       | text         | NO   |     |                   |       | 
    | principalName    | varchar(255) | NO   |     |                   |       | 
    | localId          | varchar(255) | NO   |     |                   |       | 
    | persistentId     | varchar(36)  | NO   | MUL |                   |       | 
    | peerProvidedId   | varchar(255) | YES  |     | NULL              |       | 
    | creationDate     | timestamp    | NO   |     | CURRENT_TIMESTAMP |       | 
    | deactivationDate | timestamp    | YES  |     | NULL              |       | 
    8 rows in set (0.00 sec)

  4. Create a user shibboleth with password demo and restrict permissions to database shibboleth:

    USE mysql;
    INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password,Select_priv,
     Lock_tables_priv,Execute_priv) VALUES 
    GRANT ALL ON shibboleth.* TO 'shibboleth'@'localhost'
    IDENTIFIED BY 'demo';

  5. Check if the user shibboleth has been created with password demo:

    mysql -u shibboleth -p
    Enter password
    Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
    [...] Install the java mysql connector
  1. Download the MySQL jdbc connector from Extract it in /opt:

    cd /opt
    tar -xvzf mysql-connector-java-5.1.13.tar.gz

  2. Copy the .jar file with the connector classes to the IdP's library directory:

    cp mysql-connector-java-5.1.13/mysql-connector-java-5.1.13-bin.jar \

7. X.509 Certificates

On the IdP system, X.509 certificates are installed for different purposes:

  • secure the traffic on the login page

  • secure the communication with the Shibboleth Service Providers

For the IdP login page, a certificate from an official CA (of which the root is in the browser) is needed. This will make sure the users can verify they are submitting their credentials to a server they trust and they don't get pop-ups. The procedure to get such a certificate is described in the following.

For the communication with the Shibboleth Service Providers, the IdP installer generates a self-signed certificate (idp.crt, idp.key) which has to be included in the AAI metadata.

In the following the needed steps to get a server certificate are described. For a full documentation how to get SWITCHpki certificates, see the SWITCHpki web pages. SWITCHpki allows the use of Subject Alternative Names in certificates. The desired Subject AltNames can be submitted with the certificate request.

7.1. How to create a CSR with OpenSSL

  1. OpenSSL is available on many platforms (for Windows binaries) and can be used to generate a key pair and a CSR. The most convenient way, in our opinion, is to write a short OpenSSL configuration file which you feed to the openssl req command afterwards (but feel free to use an alternative procedure if you prefer).

    Create a text file named myserver.cnf (where myserver is supposed to denote the name/FQDN of your server) with the following content:

    # OpenSSL configuration file for creating a CSR for a server certificate
    # Adapt at least the FQDN and ORGNAME lines, and then run 
    # openssl req -new -config myserver.cnf -keyout myserver.key -out myserver.csr
    # on the command line.
    # the fully qualified server (or service) name
    FQDN =
    # the name of your organization
    # (see also
    ORGNAME = Example University
    # subjectAltName entries: to add DNS aliases to the CSR, delete
    # the '#' character in the ALTNAMES line, and change the subsequent
    # 'DNS:' entries accordingly. Please note: all DNS names must
    # resolve to the same IP address as the FQDN.
    ALTNAMES = DNS:$FQDN   # , ,
    # --- no modifications required below ---
    [ req ]
    default_bits = 2048
    prompt = no
    encrypt_key = no
    default_md = sha1
    distinguished_name = dn
    req_extensions = req_ext
    [ dn ]
    C = CH
    O = $ORGNAME
    CN = $FQDN
    [ req_ext ]
    subjectAltName = $ALTNAMES

    The CN attribute is the only attribute which must always be specified in a CSR for a SWITCHpki QuoVadis certificate. All other attributes are optional (as far as the CSR is concerned), but some of them will automatically be added to the issued certificate, if needed: C (countryName), ST (stateOrProvinceName), L (localityName) and O (organizationName). If desired, an OU (organizationalUnit) attribute can be included in the request.

    The CN attribute must be set to the fully qualified domain name of your server - i.e., or similar. The req_ext section can be used to specify subjectAltName entries if you prefer specifying them this way (otherwise, simply use the text field on the enrollment form). For backward compatibility, the old multi-CN format used by SCS/GlobalSign continues to be supported, but is considered deprecated.

  2. Then, after having saved the myserver.cnf file, create the key pair and the CSR with the following command(s):

    umask 0377
    openssl req -new -config myserver.cnf -keyout myserver.key \
      -out myserver.csr

    This will create a 2048-bit RSA key pair, store the private key in the file myserver.key and write the CSR to the file myserver.csr. The private key is stored with no passphrase, that's why the umask command is used to tighten file permissions first (on a non-UNIX system, use a directory with restrictive file ACLs or equivalent).

  3. The CSR can then be submitted through the SWITCHpki QuoVadis certificate request form.

  4. To examine your CSR, use the following command (prints subject, public key and requested extensions, if present):

    openssl req -in myserver.csr -noout -text \
      -nameopt sep_multiline

8. User Authentication


For the configuration with an Active Directory server, refer to the IdPADConfigIssues page for more information. In particular, consider using port 3268 instead of 389.

This sections shows how to configure authentication for the Shibboleth IdP authentication handler with a [JAAS] module.

  1. Configure JAAS in $IDP_HOME/conf/login.config with [VTLdap]:

    ShibUserPassAuth {
    // Example LDAP authentication
    // See:
       edu.vt.middleware.ldap.jaas.LdapLoginModule required
    // Example Kerberos authentication, requires Sun's JVM
    // See:
    /* required

9. Tomcat Configuration

  1. In /opt/tomcat/conf/server.xml, configure the AJP 1.3 Connector on port 8009:

    <!-- Define an AJP 1.3 Connector on port 8009 -->
        <Connector port="8009" address=""
                   enableLookups="false" redirectPort="443"
                   tomcatAuthentication="false" />

    Other connectors are not needed when Apache is run in front of Tomcat, so they should be commented out (i.e. the Connector for port 8080).

10. Apache Configuration

Apache will be configured with the modules mod_ssl for SSL support and mod_proxy_ajp to redirect requests to Tomcat. The Apache configuration usually takes place in files in the directory /etc/apache2/sites-available/.

10.1. mod_ssl

  1. Copy the to the directory /etc/ssl/private/ and to the directory /etc/ssl/certs/.

    cp /etc/ssl/private/
    cp /etc/ssl/certs/

  2. If a SWITCHpki QuoVadis certificate is going to be used, get the QuoVadis Global SSL ICA certificate (for SSLCertificateChainFile) qvsslica.crt.pem and move it into the directory /etc/ssl/certs/.

    curl -Ok
    mv qvsslica.crt.pem /etc/ssl/certs/

  3. To improve your server's security, consider adding the ServerTokens directive in /etc/apache2/apache2.conf.

    ServerTokens Prod

  4. Configure the virtual host on Create a new configuration file in /etc/apache2/sites-available or adapt an existing one. For example, use /etc/apache2/sites-availabe/aai-logon. Make sure to set the SSLCertificateChainFile to a file which chains to the root of the CA which issued the certificate.

    <IfModule mod_ssl.c>
    <VirtualHost _default_:443>
    SSLEngine On
    SSLCipherSuite           ALL:!ADH:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:!SSLv2:+EXP
    SSLProtocol              all -SSLv2
    SSLCertificateFile       /etc/ssl/certs/
    SSLCertificateKeyFile    /etc/ssl/private/
    SSLCertificateChainFile  /etc/ssl/certs/qvsslica.crt.pem
    SSLOptions               +StdEnvVars
    SetEnvIf User-Agent ".*MSIE.*" \
        nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
        downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
    <IfModule mod_proxy_ajp.c>
        ProxyRequests Off
        <Proxy ajp://localhost:8009>
            Allow from all
        ProxyPass /idp ajp://localhost:8009/idp retry=5
    # uncomment the following line if you use CAS
    #    ProxyPass /cas ajp://localhost:8009/cas retry=5

  5. Configure the virtual host for port 8443. Make a new configuration file in /etc/apache2/sites-available or adapt an existing one. For example, use /etc/apache2/sites-availabe/aai-aa.

    <IfModule mod_ssl.c>
    <VirtualHost _default_:8443>
    SSLEngine On
    SSLCipherSuite           ALL:!ADH:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:!SSLv2:+EXP
    SSLProtocol              all -SSLv2
    SSLCertificateFile       /opt/shibboleth-idp/credentials/idp.crt
    SSLCertificateKeyFile    /opt/shibboleth-idp/credentials/idp.key
    SSLVerifyClient          optional_no_ca
    SSLVerifyDepth           10
    SSLOptions               -StdEnvVars +ExportCertData
    SetEnvIf User-Agent ".*MSIE.*" \
        nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
        downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
    <IfModule mod_proxy_ajp.c>
        ProxyRequests Off
        <Proxy ajp://localhost:8009>
            Allow from all
        ProxyPass /idp ajp://localhost:8009/idp retry=5

  6. Enable both virtual hosts (aai-logon and aai-aa):

    a2ensite aai-logon aai-aa
    Enabling site aai-logon.
    Enabling site aai-aa.
    Run '/etc/init.d/apache2 reload' to activate new configuration!

  7. Enable the ssl module.

    a2enmod ssl
    Module ssl installed; run /etc/init.d/apache2 force-reload to enable.

  8. Enable the ajp proxy module, the module mod_proxy will also be enabled.

    a2enmod proxy_ajp
    Enabling proxy as a dependency
    Module proxy installed; run /etc/init.d/apache2 force-reload to enable.
    Module proxy_ajp installed; run /etc/init.d/apache2 force-reload to enable.

  9. Make sure the server listens on port 443 (and 8443 for AA connections) with the Listen directive in /etc/apache2/ports.conf.

    Listen 443
    Listen 8443

  10. Restart the apache httpd server:

    apache2ctl -t
    Syntax OK
    apache2ctl -k restart

11. Shibboleth IdP Configuration

11.1. Configure Shibboleth IdP

11.1.1. IdP Credentials Configuration

The credentials which the Shibboleth IdP uses are in the /opt/shibboleth-idp/credentials/ directory. The installer generates a self-signed certificate which will be used within the SWITCHaai federation. The certificate is also included in the IdP's metadata in the file /opt/shibboleth-idp/metadata/idp-metadata.xml. Whenever the IdP's credentials are changed, this file has to be changed as well.

  1. Remember to set appropriate ownership and permissions, notably for the file idp.key.

    cd /opt/shibboleth-idp/credentials
    chown root idp.key
    chgrp root idp.{key,crt}
    chmod 440 idp.key
    chmod 644 idp.crt

11.1.2. Metadata Trust Configuration

  1. Download the SWITCHaai metadata trust anchor.

    cd /tmp
    curl -O

  2. Compare the certificate fingerprint with the fingerprint of the SWITCHaai Root CA certificate shown on

    openssl x509 -in SWITCHaaiRootCA.crt.pem \
    -fingerprint -sha1 -noout
    SHA1 Fingerprint=3C:E2:5A:E0:9D:B4:BB:2B:FD:33:3C:22:80:39:F7:FC:4A:F9:2C:E9

  3. If the fingerprint is correct, copy the certificate to IdP's credentials directory.

    cp SWITCHaaiRootCA.crt.pem /opt/shibboleth-idp/credentials/
    chmod 444 /opt/shibboleth-idp/credentials/SWITCHaaiRootCA.crt.pem

  4. The SWITCHaai specific relying-party.xml file can be downloaded as a template for your installation. Backup the file generated by the installer first.

    cd /opt/shibboleth-idp/conf/
    mv relying-party.xml relying-party.xml.orig
    curl -Ok

    In the configuration file relying-party.xml, configure the Relying Party elements, the Metadata Provider to use the SWITCHaai federation metadata and the trusted root certificate as shown below. Please make sure the StaticPKIXSignature Metadata TrustEngine is used.

    The entityID ( of the IdP may be adapted also, if a different value than the default should be used.

    For the AAI test federation, configure as metadataURL and /opt/shibboleth-idp/metadata/metadata.aaitest.xml as backingFile.

        <!-- ========================================== -->
        <!--      Relying Party Configurations          -->
        <!-- ========================================== -->
        <AnonymousRelyingParty provider=""
                               defaultSigningCredentialRef="IdPCredential" />
        <DefaultRelyingParty provider=""
            <ProfileConfiguration xsi:type="saml:ShibbolethSSOProfile" />
            <ProfileConfiguration xsi:type="saml:SAML1AttributeQueryProfile" />
            <ProfileConfiguration xsi:type="saml:SAML1ArtifactResolutionProfile" />
            <ProfileConfiguration xsi:type="saml:SAML2SSOProfile" />
            <ProfileConfiguration xsi:type="saml:SAML2AttributeQueryProfile" />
            <ProfileConfiguration xsi:type="saml:SAML2ArtifactResolutionProfile" />
        <!-- See for more information -->
        <RelyingParty id="" 
            <ProfileConfiguration xsi:type="saml:ShibbolethSSOProfile" 
                                  includeAttributeStatement="true" />
            <ProfileConfiguration xsi:type="saml:SAML2SSOProfile" />
        <!-- See for more information -->
        <RelyingParty id="" 
            <ProfileConfiguration xsi:type="saml:SAML2SSOProfile" 
                                  includeAttributeStatement="false" />
            <ProfileConfiguration xsi:type="saml:SAML2AttributeQueryProfile" />
            <ProfileConfiguration xsi:type="saml:SAML2ArtifactResolutionProfile" />
        <!-- ========================================== -->
        <!--      Metadata Configuration                -->
        <!-- ========================================== -->
        <!-- MetadataProvider the combining other MetadataProviders -->
        <MetadataProvider id="ShibbolethMetadata" xsi:type="ChainingMetadataProvider" xmlns="urn:mace:shibboleth:2.0:metadata">
        	<!-- Load the IdP's own metadata.  This is necessary for artifact support. -->
            <MetadataProvider id="IdPMD" xsi:type="ResourceBackedMetadataProvider" xmlns="urn:mace:shibboleth:2.0:metadata" >
                <MetadataResource xsi:type="resource:FilesystemResource" file="/opt/shibboleth-idp/metadata/idp-metadata.xml" />
            <!-- SWITCHaai production federation metadata provider. -->
            <!-- Reads metadata from a URL and store a backup copy on the file system. -->
            <!-- These attributes are set specifically for SWITCHaai -->
            <!-- Validates the signature of the metadata and filters out all by SP entities in order to save memory -->
            <!-- maintainExpiredMetadata:  use expired metadata (boolean) -->
            <!-- cacheDuration: max time until next metadata refresh (seconds) -->
            <MetadataProvider id="URLMD" xsi:type="FileBackedHTTPMetadataProvider" xmlns="urn:mace:shibboleth:2.0:metadata"
                <MetadataFilter xsi:type="ChainingFilter" xmlns="urn:mace:shibboleth:2.0:metadata">
                    <MetadataFilter xsi:type="RequiredValidUntil" xmlns="urn:mace:shibboleth:2.0:metadata" 
                                    maxValidityInterval="604800" />
                    <MetadataFilter xsi:type="SignatureValidation"
                                    requireSignedMetadata="true" />
        <!-- ========================================== -->
        <!--     Security Configurations                -->
        <!-- ========================================== -->
        <security:Credential id="IdPCredential" xsi:type="security:X509Filesystem">
        <!-- Trust engine used to evaluate the signature on loaded metadata. -->
        <security:TrustEngine id="shibboleth.MetadataTrustEngine" xsi:type="security:StaticPKIXSignature">
        <!-- DO NOT EDIT BELOW THIS POINT -->    

11.1.3. Attribute Resolution and Filtering Configuration


For the configuration with an Active Directory server, refer to the IdPADConfigIssues page for more information. In particular, consider using 3268 instead of 389.

  1. Adapt the attribute resolver to use your attribute source. The example shows a configuration with an LDAP server to resolve the attributes from. Download the SWITCHaai specific configuration file attribute-resolver.xml and adapt it.

    cd /opt/shibboleth-idp/conf/
    curl -Ok

  2. Make sure to have replaced the salt of the storedID Connector with a random string. The random string may be generated with the following command:

    openssl rand -base64 36 2>/dev/null

    The salt is a string of random data; must be at least 16 characters, 48 characters is recommended. Be sure to write down this salt value somewhere safe so that the persistentIDs are not lost if you delete your configuration file!

        <!-- ========================================== -->
        <!--      Attribute Definitions                 -->
        <!-- ========================================== -->
        <!-- ========================================== -->
        <!--      Data Connectors                       -->
        <!-- ========================================== -->
        <!-- Example Static Connector -->
        <resolver:DataConnector id="staticAttributes" xsi:type="Static" xmlns="urn:mace:shibboleth:2.0:resolver:dc">
            <Attribute id="eduPersonAffiliation">
            <Attribute id="eduPersonEntitlement">
            <Attribute id="swissEduPersonHomeOrganization">
            <Attribute id="swissEduPersonHomeOrganizationType">
        <!-- Example Relational Database Connector -->
        <resolver:DataConnector id="mySIS" xsi:type="RelationalDatabase" xmlns="urn:mace:shibboleth:2.0:resolver:dc">
            <ApplicationManagedConnection jdbcDriver="oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver"
                jdbcURL="" jdbcUserName="myid" jdbcPassword="mypassword" />
                    SELECT * FROM student WHERE gzbtpid = $requestContext.principalName
            <Column columnName="gzbtpid" attributeID="uid" />
            <Column columnName="fqlft" attributeID="gpa" type="Float" />
        <!-- Example LDAP Connector -->
        <resolver:DataConnector id="myLDAP"
        <!-- StoredID (persistentID) Connector -->
        <resolver:DataConnector id="myStoredId"
            salt="your random string here">
            <resolver:Dependency ref="swissEduPersonUniqueID" />
                jdbcPassword="demo" />
        <!-- Computed targeted ID connector -->
        <resolver:DataConnector xsi:type="ComputedId" xmlns="urn:mace:shibboleth:2.0:resolver:dc"
                                salt="your random string here">
            <resolver:Dependency ref="myLDAP" />
        <!-- ========================================== -->
        <!--      Principal Connectors                  -->
        <!-- ========================================== -->
        <resolver:PrincipalConnector xsi:type="Transient" xmlns="urn:mace:shibboleth:2.0:resolver:pc" id="shibTransient"
            nameIDFormat="urn:mace:shibboleth:1.0:nameIdentifier" />
        <resolver:PrincipalConnector xsi:type="Transient" xmlns="urn:mace:shibboleth:2.0:resolver:pc" id="saml1Unspec"
            nameIDFormat="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:1.1:nameid-format:unspecified" />
        <resolver:PrincipalConnector xsi:type="Transient" xmlns="urn:mace:shibboleth:2.0:resolver:pc" id="saml2Transient"
            nameIDFormat="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:nameid-format:transient" />
        <resolver:PrincipalConnector xsi:type="pc:StoredId" xmlns:pc="urn:mace:shibboleth:2.0:resolver:pc" id="saml2Persistent"  
            storedIdDataConnectorRef="myStoredId" />

  3. This sample Attribute Filter Policy file attribute-filter.xml allows the release of attributes to two Service Providers within the SWITCHaai Federation, the Resource Registry and the Attribute Viewer. Before registering the IdP in the Resource Registry, download the attribute-filter.xml file.

    cd /opt/shibboleth-idp/conf/
    curl -Ok

    After the IdP has been registered in the Resource Registry, the configuration for the attribute-filter.xml file will have to be changed. The file attribute-filter.xml to be kept up to date in order to allow the release of attributes for e.g. new Service Providers or new attributes to be released to Service Providers.

11.1.4. Authentication Handler configuration

  1. Enable the UsernamePassword login handler of the Shibboleth IdP in the configuration file handler.xml (remove the comments around the <LoginHandler> element):

        <!-- Login Handlers -->
        <LoginHandler xsi:type="RemoteUser">
        <!--  Username/password login handler -->
        <LoginHandler xsi:type="UsernamePassword" 

11.1.5. IdP Status URL configuration

Edit the /opt/shibboleth-identityprovider-2.1.5/src/main/webapp/WEB-INF/web.xml:

<!-- Servlet for displaying IdP status. -->
    <!-- Space separated list of CIDR blocks allowed to access the status page -->
        <param-value> ::1/128 2001:620::/48 #your IP range#</param-value>

The IPv4 net as well as the IPv6 net 2001:620::/48 have been registered for SWITCH.

11.1.6. Login and error pages customization

  1. Customize the login and error pages of the IdP. These are JSP pages that lie in src/main/webapp/ of the Shibboleth IdP distribution.

    The following files are customizable:


    Login page of the Shibboleth Username/Password authentication handler.


    Error page for container managed authentication. (Does not apply for this guide.)


    Standard error page.


    Custom 404 page for unconfigured locations in the IdP webapp.

    For SWITCHaai specific design templates, refer to SWITCHaai design web pages.

  2. Redeploy the Shibboleth IdP web application, responding no. Tomcat will reload the web application provided that the context descriptor points to the file /opt/shibboleth-idp/war/idp.war (see the section Shibboleth IdP Installation).

    cd /opt/shibboleth-identityprovider-2.1.5/
    Buildfile: src/installer/resources/build.xml
    Be sure you have read the installation/upgrade instructions on the
    Shibboleth website before proceeding.
    Where should the Shibboleth Identity Provider software be installed?
    The directory '/opt/shibboleth-idp' already exists.  Would you like to
    overwrite this Shibboleth configuration? (yes, [no])
    (further output omitted)

11.2. Shibboleth IdP Log Files

The IdP's main log file is idp-process.log. Errors and warnings can be found there. To set the log level for debugging, edit the /etc/shibboleth/logging.xml configuration file. In the <logger> element the attribute level can be set to DEBUG. For production use, set the log level to WARN or lower.

To enable logging for the LDAP connection, insert the following lines in logging.xml:

    <!-- Logs LDAP related messages -->
    <logger name="edu.vt.middleware.ldap">
        <level value="WARN"/>

If the Shibboleth web application does not start up at all, there may be some piece of information in the Tomcat logs in /var/log/tomcat/catalina.out.

11.3. Test the installation

First, make sure Apache and Tomcat are running.

apache2ctl status
                       Apache Server Status for localhost

(further output omitted)

If Tomcat has not been started, start it:

/etc/init.d/tomcat start
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /opt/tomcat
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /opt/tomcat
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR: /opt/tomcat/temp
Using JRE_HOME:        /usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun
Using CLASSPATH:       /opt/tomcat/bin/bootstrap.jar

Check the Tomcat log in /var/log/tomcat/catalina.out for errors.

11.3.1. IdP Status URL

To test if the IdP web application is up, check the Status URL of the IdP with the web browser: The IdP should send a plain text page with configuration information about your IdP with three sections: Operating Environment Information, Identity Provider Information and Relying Party Configurations. If there's no such page, check the log files for errors (see section Shibboleth IdP Log Files). You may also have to check the IdP Status URL configuration (see Section 11.1.5, “IdP Status URL configuration”).

11.3.2. Attribute Viewer Service Provider

SWITCH runs Service Providers as test counterparts for Identity Providers. On the AAI Viewer SP (SWITCHaai federation), the attributes sent to that resource are shown on a web page. Before testing, make sure the attribute resolver (attribute-resolver.xml) is configured properly and the attribute filter (attribute-filter.xml) allows attributes to be released to the respective resource. If no attributes are shown on the Service Provider, check your log files for errors (see section Shibboleth IdP Log Files).

12. AAI Resource Registry

The SWITCHaai Resource Registry collects configuration information about Service Providers and Identity Providers which participate in the federations "SWITCHaai", and "AAI Test".

  1. You are now ready to register your Identity Provider in the AAI Resource Registry. Doing this allows to download a customized attribute-filter.xml file for the IdP.

  2. The attribute-filter.xml file can be configured to be downloaded from a URL as follows.

    The correct download URL has to be obtained from the Resource Registry.

    A configuration example in service.xml is shown below. Instead of put in your IdP's hostname or domain name.

    <Service id="shibboleth.AttributeFilterEngine"
      <ConfigurationResource xsi:type="resource:FileBackedHttpResource"

    For the AAI test federation, configure as url (replace with an appropriate value).

  3. Restart Tomcat to enable the new settings.

This concludes the Shibboleth IdP installation.

13. Maintenance

Make sure you keep the software on your IdP system up to date! Here are some hints that may help you to do so:

  1. Sign up to the aai-operations mailing list.

  2. Regularly check for security updates of your operating system. Debians security page lists the latest updates.

  3. Security updates of the Shibboleth software is announced on their security advisories page.



Authentication and Authorization Infrastructure

Back channel connection

System initiated web-service connection to the IdP


Certification authority


Certificate revocation list


Certificate signing request

Front channel connection

User initiated browser connection to the IdP


Identity Provider


Public key infrastructure


Security Assertion Markup Language


[AttrSpec] AAI Attribute Specification. SWITCH. 9.2007. .

[AAIRR] AAI Resource Registry. .

[ApacheTomcat] Apache Tomcat. .

[Debian] Debian. .

[EmbdCerts] Requirements for SAML2 Metadata embedded certificates. SWITCH. 9.2008. .

[IdPADConfigIssues] Microsoft Active Directory Configuration Issues. .

[JAAS] Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) Reference Guide. .

[MySQL] MySQL. .

[ShibbolethInternet2] Shibboleth Website. .

[ShibWiki] Shibboleth Wiki. .

[SunJava] Sun Java. .

[uapprove] SWITCH AAI uApprove. .

[VTLdap] Virginia Tech LDAP Module. .